Palavras-chave: Rupi Kaur., Feminism., Figures of speech., Figurative Language.


ABSTRACT: Rupi Kaur’s masterpiece ‘Milk and Honey’ is filled with figures of speech such as irony, hyperbole, personification, metonymy, metaphor, and simile that resemble aspects of the author’s minimalistic and aesthetic writing style. Additionally, it explores relevant themes like the commodification of women’s bodies, oppressive beauty norms, and rape culture that are attached to The Feminist Movement foundations. In this sense, this paper aims to analyze six poems from the anthology in order to illustrate the usage of figures of speech in a literary context. Bearing in mind that comprehending figurative language is not an easy process, this study suggests some tools like the notions of presuppositions, vehicle, and intertextuality that can assist readers to better understand the language implemented by the author. Furthermore, this work considers some author's contributions such as Axelle Mariavale and David MacQuillan to investigate the techniques Kaur uses to create a self-related atmosphere in her book. Thereby, the study of the poems points out that approaching figurative language in literature produces considerable outcomes as it evokes vivid but diverse interpretations, encourages critical thinking, and enhances the reader’s emotive responses.



Não há dados estatísticos.



BOOK ANALYZED: KAUR, R. Milk and Honey. Kansas City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2015.

ALLEN, Grahan. Intertextuality. 2. ed. Londres e Nova Iorque: Routledge, 2011.

BURGERS, C.; BRUGMAN, B. C.; LAVALETTE, K. Y.; STEEN, G. J. A Method for Linguistic Hyperbole Identification in Discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, n.31, v.3, p. 163-178, 20016. Disponível em: <0doi:10.1080/10926488.2016.1187041.> Acesso em: 24 abr. 2021.

CLÜVER, Claus. Estudos interartes: conceitos, termos, objetivos. Literatura e Sociedade. v. 2. n.2., 1997. Disponível em: https://www.revistas.usp.br/ls/issue/view/16. Acesso em: 22 fev. 2023.

CLÜVER, Claus. “Inter textus/ Inter Artes/ Inter Media”. Belo Horizonte: Aletria, 2006.

HIGGINS, Dick. Intermídia. Tradução por Amir Brito. In: DINIZ, Thaïs Flores Nogueira; VIEIRA, André Soares (orgs.). Intermidialidade e estudos interartes: desafios da arte contemporânea. v. 2. Belo Horizonte: Rona editora e FALE/UFMG, 2012.

GRANT, L.; BAUER, L. Criteria for re-defining idioms; are we barking up the wrong tree? Applied Linguistics, p. 38–61, 2004.

GRIFFITHS, P. An Introduction to English Semantics and Pragmatics. Edinburg: Edinburg University Press, 2006.

HUA, Ahn. Diaspora and Cultural Memory. In: AGNEW, Vijay. Diaspora, memory, and identity: a search for home, (pp. 191-208). Canada: Toronto Press Incorporated, 2005.

KASSAM, A. ‘Rupi Kaur: 'There Was No Market for Poetry about Trauma, Abuse and Healing’. The Guardian, 2016. Disponível em: <https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/aug/26/rupi-kaur-poetry>. Acesso em: 24 abr. 2021.

KASTORYANO, Riva. Multiculturalism and interculturalism: redefining nationhood and solidarity. Comparative Migration Studies, 2018. Available in: <https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-018-0082-6>. Accessed in: 05/01/21.

KASTORYANO, Riva. Transnational nationalism. Redefining nation and territory. In: S. Benhabib, & I. Shapiro (Eds.), Identities, affiliations and allegiances, (pp. 159–181). New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

LEVEY, Geoffrey. Interculturalism vs. Multiculturalism: A Distinction without a Difference? Journal of Intercultural Studies, v. 33, n. 2, p. 217-224, 2012.

LEVINSON, S. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

LOCKHART, Tara. Writing the Self: Gloria Anzaldúa, Textual Form, and Feminist Epistemology. Michigan Feminist Studies. Michigan, v. 20, 2007.

MARIAVALE, A. Rupi Kaur’s poetry: decolonial and transnational feminism in North American popular culture. Epistemological Others, Languages, Literatures, Exchanges and Societies Journal, 2019. Disponível em: <https://gric.univ-lehavre.fr/IMG/pdf/mariavale_axelle__rupi_kaur_s_poetry_postcolonial_and_transnation_feminism.pdf >. Acesso em: 25 abr. 2021.

MCQUILLAN, D. Aesthetic Scandal and Accessibility: The Subversive Simplicity of Rupi Kaur’s milk and honey, 2018. Dissertation (Master degree) - Master of Arts, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 2018.

NIKOLAVEJA, Maria; SCOTT, Carole. Livro Ilustrado: palavras e imagens. Tradução por Cid Knipel. São Paulo: Cosac Naif, 2011.

PHILLIPS, Anne. Multiculturalism without culture. Princeton, Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2007.

STERN, J. Metaphor in Context. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.

WILSON, D.; SPERBER, D. Relevance theory. In: HORN, L. R.; WARD, G. The Handbook of Pragmatics. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 607–32, 2004.


Publicado em

5 de novembro de 2023

Como Citar

BORGES, A.; ALBUQUERQUE, A. .; RIOS BARRETO FILHO, R. A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF FIGURES OF SPEECH IN THE CONTEMPORARY ANTHOLOGY “MILK AND HONEY” (2015) BY RUPI KAUR . Revista 15 de outubro, Campina Grande, v. 2, n. 1, p. 100–112, 2023. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10073513. Disponível em: https://revistas.editora.ufcg.edu.br/index.php/r15o/article/view/983. Acesso em: 27 fev. 2024.